Author: huobishi2014

45. “Cultural Revolution style red packets”

Frances Wood (formerly Head of the Chinese section at the British Library, and author of Hand Grenade Practice in Beijing: My Part in the Cultural Revolution and many other books) recently donated a pack of “Cultural Revolution style red packets” to the British Museum. She purchased them in a Chinese supermarket in central London earlier this year.

There are several hundred money envelopes (hongbao 红包) from China and Hong Kong in the BM collection. By Chinese standards this is a small collection. However, the majority have been donated by one person, Mrs QIU Jinxian, conservator of Chinese paintings at the BM. By donating the envelopes that her family members have received at Chinese New Year over many years, they form a cohesive group of the kind of envelopes that are used in London, and allow us to trace changes in the styles of envelopes over more than a decade. When she first started donating them, many were issued by Chinese banks, restaurants and other organisations, but in the last few years, non-Chinese companies have also started issuing red envelopes.

The “Cultural Revolution style red packets” contained the following 6 envelopes, with designs from well-known Chinese propaganda posters, and a jokey slogan at the top. Many thanks to Stefan Landsberger, for creating the invaluable website and for help identifying the two that stumped me. The envelopes are numbered 1-6 on the back, and are presented below in that order.


CBA19544 group 1-3

nos 1-3

CBA19544 group 4-6

nos 4-6

Details below:


CBA19974 front

[1]  BM 2018,4016.1.a

Original poster: Title unknown, by Jin Meisheng, 1964. See the poster online here.

Inscription: 进步奖  //  百尺竿头 更进一步  //  Jin bu jiang // Bai chi gan tou geng jin yi bu  //  Award for Progress // When you get to the top, go a step further.


CBA19984 front

[2]  BM 2018,4016.1.b

Original poster: “Children train to become good revolutionary successors” — Chinese title: 小朋友们来锻炼 长大接好革命班 Xiao pengyoumen lai duanlian zhangda jiehao geming ban  //  French title: Nos petits amis s’entrainent pour devenir de bons successeurs de la revolution  //  German: Kinder trainieren, um gute Fortsetzer der Revolution zu werden.  See the poster online here  and here  and here (where it is listed as created by the Guangzhou Fine Art Studio 广州美术工作室, and printed by the People’s Sports Publishing House 人民体育出版社, first edition 1975, second edition 1976).

Inscription: 压岁钱  //  健健康康  岁岁平安压岁钱  //  健健康康  岁岁平安  //  Ya sui qian // jian jian kang kang  sui sui ping an  //  New Year Money // Be healthy! Be healthy! Peace every year!


CBA19985 front

[3]   BM 2018,4016.1.c

Original poster: “Long live the victory of Mao Zedong Thought! Warmly hail the successful launch of our country’s first man- made earth satellite!”  Mao Zedong sixiang shengli wansui! Relie huanhu woguo chenggongde fashe diyike renzao diqiu weixing!  毛泽东思想万岁!热烈欢呼我国成功地发射第一颗人造地球卫星!, published by Revolutionary Group of Shanghai Publishers 上海市出版革命组. Thanks to Stefan Landsberger for identifying this one.  See the poster online here.

Inscription:  家有喜事 // 有情人终成眷属  //  Jia you xi shi // you qing ren zhong cheng juan shu  // There’s a wedding in the family // lovers become family members


CBA19986 front

[4]   BM 2018,4016.1.d

Original poster:  “Firmly grasp large-scale revolutionary criticism”  //  Zhuajin geming da pipan 抓紧革命大批判  — Designed by the Propaganda Group of the Revolutionary Committee of the Shanghai No. 3 Ink Factory 1969, published by  Shanghai renmin meishu chubanshe 上海人民美术出版社 . See the poster online here.

Inscription:  奖金 // 不管什么奖发钱就是爽  //  Jiangjin // Bu guan shenme jiang fa qian jiushi shuang  //  Bonus // It doesn’t matter what it’s for, as long as it’s money it’s cool


CBA19987 front

[5]  BM 2018,4016.1.e

Original poster:  “Carry on the glorious revolutionary tradition”  //  继承光荣的革命传统 Jicheng guangrong de geming  chuantong, adapted from a painting by Zhou Ruizhuan, published by Shanghai renmin meishu chubanshe, 1965.  Thanks to Stefan Landsberger for identifying this one. See the poster online here.

Inscription:  红包 // 人生最激动的时刻莫过拆红包  //  Hong bao // Rensheng zui jidong de shike mo guo chai hon bao  //  Red envelope // Nothing in life is more exciting than ripping open a red envelope


CBA19988 front

[6]  BM 2018,4016.1.f

Original poster:  “The vegetables are green, the cucumbers plump, the yield is abundant”  //  Cai lü, gua fei, chanliang duo 菜绿瓜肥产量多, by Jin Meisheng 金梅生, published by Shanghai renmin meishu chubanshe 上海人民美术出版社 in 1959. See the poster online here.

Inscription: 年底分红 // 睡觉睡到自然醒数钱数到手抽筋  //  Nian di fen hong // Shuijiao shui dao ziran xing, shu qian shu dao shou chou jin  //  End of year profits // Sleep… until you wake naturally. Count money… until you get cramp in your hands



44. Japanese Occupation Money and the Battle of Balikpapan

Nicholas Lua Swee Yang, a student volunteer, has been helping me with the East Asian paper money collection this spring, most recently on the Japanese Occupation Money (also known as Japanese Invasion Money). One note [CIB,EA.208] particularly caught his attention, and inspired him to research it further and write this post.  (more…)

43. Ma Rong – engraver of Mao and monkeys

Generally speaking, the designers and engravers of Chinese banknotes and postage stamps do not receive a lot of attention. Until recently, banknote printing was shrouded in secrecy. In 2015, the new edition of the 100-yuan note was issued, and hit the news for two specific reasons: it was China’s first digitally engraved banknote and it was engraved by a woman. MA Rong is hardly a household name, but her work is known to millions. (more…)

42. A Viking ship on a Chinese note

This piece was first published on the British Museum blog on 9 June 2014, at the time of the Viking exhibition. It’s since disappeared from the BM website, so I’ll post it again here. I was reminded of this piece by Professor Robert Bickers, University of Bristol, who emailed this week with news of Fartsan T. Sung, one of the signatories on this note, having just posted a photograph of Fartsan T. Sung and his wife Margaret Wang Song on the website Historical Photographs of China (more…)

41. Chinese guides for identifying silver dollars and other coins, 19th century

There are two Chinese guides – merchant manuals or shroff’s guides – in the Department of Coins and Medals, at The British Museum (nos 4 and 8 below). Several similar guides are known, and I’m grateful to Richard von Glahn and Byron Hamann for sharing their expertise and knowledge on this subject. I’ll give a very brief introduction below, and then share ten of these guides. If you know of others, or of research on these guides, please leave a comment. (more…)

40. Thai porcelain tokens (“pee”)

Thai porcelain tokens (pee) are found in many collections, often just one or two pieces, and sometimes more. These are known by various terms, including the following (for more, see the bibliography below): (more…)