63. The Xi’an Numismatic Museum’s series “Currency and Culture” (2)

The Xi’an Numismatic Museum (established in 2011) has published the first two volumes in a series in the title Huobi yu wenhua 《货币与文化》. The English title for the first volume is Monetary and Culture (see previous post), and for the second volume Currency and Culture. The volumes are jointly edited by the Xi’an Numismatic Museum 西安钱币博物馆 and the Xi’an Numismatic Society 西安钱币学会. The editor-in-chief is Mr ZHAO Xiaoming 赵晓明.

Money and culture 2

Xi’an qianbi bowuguan, Xi’an qianbi xuehui (eds), Huobi yu wenhua / Currency and Culture, di er ji (Xi’an: Xi’an chubanshe, 2019). ISBN 978-7-5541-3283-8 // 西安钱币博物馆、西安钱币学会编:《货币与文化》第二辑(西安:西安出版社,2019年)//   Xi’an Money Museum and Xi’an Numismatic  Society (eds), Currency and Culture, vol. 2 (Xi’an Publishing House, 2019).

Below is my rough translation of the contents into English. For the original Table of Contents in Chinese, see Currency and Culture 2

Vol. 2 – Table of Contents 

  • Foreword – by ZHAO Xiaoming (ed-in-chief)  (p.1)

Historic research on currency

  • China’s silver money by weight (Jin Deping)  (6)
  • On Jin dynasty copper plates for paper money WANG Yong) (31)
  • The Mongol Empire and coins of the khanates (LI Tiesheng) (51)
  • “Qianbi” and “huobi” in historical materials (WANG Jijie) (60)
  • On the coins unearthed beneath the Longping pagoda, at the Longzhen site, Shanghai (ZHOU Xiang) (64)
  • On the round coins with the inscription Gong tun chi jin (WANG Liyan) (69)
  • Computing information on ancient coins – taking Wang Mang’s coins as an example  (JIANG Baolian, QIN Jianming) (76)
  • On the character “jing” on spade money (BAI Qinchuan) (82)
  • New research on moulds and casting of Qi knife money (CHEN Xu) (87)
  • On Ningbo coin-shops and their account-keeping (SHENG Guanxi) (98)
  • On the casting technique of Tang dynasty Kaiyuan tongbao coins (YANG Huai) (108)
  • On Qing dynasty silver ingots of Changguan (CHEN Kun) (119)
  • On the birth of banliang coins, and different types of banliang (WANG Taichu) (125)
  • So many Northern Song dynasty coins, and not a single mother coin? (ZHANG Mailin) (137)
  • Stone cowries, and stone discs of the Spring and Autumn, and early Warring States period (TANG Shunde, TANG De) (150)
  • The “silver rider” coin (ducaton) in Chinese-Dutch trade (WANG Weili) (157)
  • Silver coins piled up high in the  Thirteen Hongs – foreign coins in China in the Ming and Qing periods (LUO Wenjing) (164)
  • On Shaanxi copper dollars (HE Kangmin) (173)
  • How to tell if a silver dollar is genuine or not? (JI Shaoyong) (180)
  • Foreign silver coins dominated the Chinese market in the late Qing, early Republic (FENG Jing) (182)

Renminbi research

  • On the impact of market-based reform on short-term capital flow based on the VAR model (ZHAO Zihan (190)
  • On the past life of Renminbi Series 4 (ZHAO Xiaoli) (203)
  • On the three different types of 100-yuan note in RMB Series 5 (YIN Dongfeng, ZHANG Jingtao, SUN Zhongdao) (209)

Monetary Culture Overview 

  • What are coin-shaped charms? (LIU Chunsheng) (214)
  • Commemorative medals as an extension of China’s traditional folk coins (ZHANG Deyou) (226)
  • On the technique of taking rubbings, and coin rubbings (ZHAO Xiaoming) (234)


  • The cultural value of coin displays in the new interconnected era (BAI Lihua) (250)
  • Museums are an important foundation for developing cultural industries (ZHAO Xiaoming) (254)
  • On patterns of cultural industry in university/college museums (MENG Xin) (259)
  • The relationship between university/college museums and the cultural industries (ZHANG Dongjing) (263)
  • The Silk Road cultural values of the Hanguang Gate site (DU Dexin) (267)
  • The significance of building museum cultural industries (ZHANG Juan) (272)
  • The development of museum cultural industries – the example of the Tang Sancai Art Museum (ZENG Lirong) (275)
  • Museum cultural industries and protection of intellectual property (LI Yiming) (280)
  • How museum cultural products are developing and the status quo – the example of the Jia Pingwa Literature and Art Gallery (WANG Jun) (283)

Tracing of the Silk Road

  • Coins of the Golden Horde (LI Tiesheng) (288)
  • Coins of the Western Regions seen in Journey to the West (YUAN Wei) (292)
  • The camel trade on the Silk Road of the Steppes as a reference for Belt and Road (SU Lide) (301)

Walking in Translation  [Translations of foreign works]

  • “Sasanian Coins”, by Mrs Elahe ASKARI and Dr Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, The British Academy Review, Jan-Jul 2001) (tr. CHEN Yaling) (310)
  • “Chinese coin found at Kottapatnam, Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh”, by K.P. Rao and Joe Cribb, Numismatic Digest (Nasik), vols  23-24 (1999-2001), pp. 133-158. (tr. ZHANG Jiajia) (314)

 Famous Works Appreciation

  • Appreciation of “Order to drive out illicit coinage” (WANG Yan, YUAN Ye) (318)
  • Appreciation of the poem “Ode to Coins” (YIN Fanglin) (323)

Chamber Introduction [About numismatic organisations]

  • Hangzhou World Coin Museum (ZHU Jianguo) (326)
  • Displaying the wonderful money culture of the Silk Road – the Xinjiang Numismatic Museum (HUANG Zhigang)  (331)
  • Shandong Numismatic Society (LU Bo) (334)
  • Qilu Numismatic Museum (QI Quan) (337)
  • The Xi’an Numismatic Museum’s survey of portable antiquities in Shaanxi province (QIAN Bo) (339)

Contributions welcome  (343)

Contact details: 

Mr ZHAO Xiaoming, Xi’an Numismatic Museum, 188 Xi da jie, Xi’an city, Shaanxi province, PR China, 710002

  • 陕西省西安市西大街188号(西安钱币博物馆收)
  • 邮编:710002
  • 联系人:赵晓明
  • 电话:029-87620652
  • 邮箱:1041394512@qq.com

62. The Xi’an Numismatic Museum’s series “Currency and Culture” (1)

The Xi’an Numismatic Museum (established in 2011) has published the first two volumes in a series in the title Huobi yu wenhua 《货币与文化》. The English title for the first volume is Monetary and Culture, and for the second volume Currency and Culture. The volumes are jointly edited by the Xi’an Numismatic Museum 西安钱币博物馆 and the Xi’an Numismatic Society 西安钱币学会. The editor-in-chief is Mr ZHAO Xiaoming 赵晓明.

Capture 1

Xi’an qianbi bowuguan, Xi’an qianbi xuehui (eds), Huobi yu wenhua / Monetary and Culture, di yi ji (Xi’an: Xi’an chubanshe, 2017). ISBN 978-7-5541-2048-4 // 西安钱币博物馆、西安钱币学会编:《货币与文化》,diyi(西安:西安出版社,2017年)//   Xi’an Money Museum and Xi’an Numismatic  Society (eds), Monetary and Culture, vol. 1 (Xi’an Publishing House, 2017).

Below is my rough translation of the contents into English. For the original Table of Contents in Chinese, see Monetary and culture 1

Vol. 1 – Table of Contents 

  • Foreword – by ZHAO Xiaoming (ed-in-chief)  (p.1)

Historic research on Monetary [Research on currency of the past]

  • On the “lead cakes with dragon design” unearthed in a Han tomb in Yangzhou (JIANG Baolian, ZHAO Qiang)  (6)
  • Yuan dynasty silver ingot (Zhending lu Hejian salt-tax) (LI Xiaoping)  (13)
  • On Western Han “white gold” money (ZHAO Xiaoming)  (21)
  • On “Liyong tongbao” coins, 17th c (LIU Shunqiang)  (26)
  • Sales and circulation of late Qing copper dollars (WANG Xianguo)  (47)
  • On some pre-Qin coins of enfeoffment (DANG Shunmin, DANG De)  (54)
  • Dating wuzhu coins with rims around the square hole (WANG Taichu)  (63)
  • The Jianghuai Bank and its notes during the Sino-Japanese War (LI Dong)  (70)
  • Dragon notes of Shaanxi province during the Xinhai Revolution – five-colour dragon (ZHU Qinghua)  (78)
  • On the Chuan-Kang Civilians Commercial Bank – Xi’an branch (ZHOU Yanling)  (84)
  • On gold coins of the Chu state unearthed in Shouxian, Anhui (YUAN Lin)  (89)
  • On Shaanxi silver ingots (MA Xiao)  (92)
  • On silver coins cast in Xuantong year 3 (1910) (KOU Shangmin)  (104)
  • The Qing dynasty coins of Fengtian, with inscription “Bao Feng” (ZHANG Peilin)  (112)
  • On Tiansheng yuanbao coins, and finds of Xi Xia coins in Wuwei (YU Guangjian, LI Daxiang)  (114)
  • Two rare boat-shaped silver ingots of the Tang dynasty (WANG Shiyong)  (119)
  • Copper dollars of Shaanxi (WU Hongwei)  (127)
  • Notes of the Bank of Taiwan under Japanese occupation (WANG Xiaolong)  (132)
  • American coins in trans-ocean trade (LIN Nanzhong)  (139)
  • On Piastres de commerce (trade dollars) (LI Yunheng)  (143)

Management of Renminbi

  • On the circulation of coins in the Xi’an region (ZHUANG Yibing, CHEN Yaling)  (148)
  • Management tools and effects of cross-border capital flows based on macro-prudential goals – – the example of Shaanxi province (ZHAO Zihan)  (153)
  • Thinking about current cash management (QUAN Liyan)  (163)
  • On RMB anti-counterfeiting cooperation (ZHU Jiang)  (167)
  • New methods and ways of identifying counterfeits (LENG Xiandan, SUN Yuan, SUN Zhongdao)  (170)
  • On commemorative coins (LIU Xiaoli)  (172)
  • Digital money around the world developing in “Chaos and innovation”  (ZI Liang) (174)

Monetary Culture Overview 

  • Kaiyuan tongbao coins in Traditional Chinese Medicine (YANG Huai)  (178)
  • Qi culture embodied in Qi knife money (CHEN Xu)  (185)
  • Poetry/songs on German Emergency Currency (notgeld) (LI Chuaming)  (189)
  • References to money in Chinese poetry (JI Xiaoyong)  (195)
  • China’s traditional money culture: little red envelopes (hongbao) (QIAN Bo)  (198)


  • On colour and lighting in museum displays (AI Jing)  (202)
  • On risk management when in coin galleries (LIU Shunqiang)  (206)
  • On education in money museums (ZHAO Xiaoming)  (211)
  • On Internet+ college/university museums (MENG Xin)  (218)
  • A bridge connecting museums and school education – collaboration between Hanguang Gate Museum and the Bao’en Temple Street Primary School (CHEN Chen)  (222)
  • Using new media to serve museum visitors – the Jia Pingwa Literature and Art Gallery (WANG Jun)  (228)
  • The Internet of Things and the Hanguang Gate Museum, Xi’an (HU Yue, WANG Anwen, CHEN Hao)  (232)

Tracing of the Silk Road

  • The British East India Company Trade and Money – and a discussion on the “Maritime Silk Road” of Zhoushan in the Ming and Qing (SHENG Guanxi)   (242)
  • Introduction to the “Kerman Khitans” of Western Asia (LIN Wenjun)  (254)
  • Na Songkhla coins with Chinese inscriptions (HUANG Hansen)  (261)
  • On coins of the House of Ogedei (WANG Hailin)  (268)
  • Coins of Iran, ancient and modern (LIU Zhentang)  (277)
  • The coins of Malaya tell the history of Southeast Asia (LIN Nanzhong)  (280)

Walking in Translation  [Translations of foreign works]

  • Excerpt from Arthur Young’s China’s Wartime Finance and Inflation, 1937-1945,  (tr. FAN Zeyu)   (287)
  • Excerpt from Jack Belden’s China Shakes the World (tr. FAN Zeyu)   (289)

 Famous Works Appreciation

  • Appreciation of Lu Bao’s The Money God (QIAN Hui)  (294)
  • Appreciation of The Classic of Coins (QIAN Hui)  (299)

Chamber Introduction [About numismatic organisations]

  • Xi’an Numismatic Museum  (302)
  • Xi’an Numismatic Society  (312)
  • Research Topics of the Xi’an Numismatic Society in 2016  (316)

Contributions welcome  (317)

Contact details: 

Mr ZHAO Xiaoming, Xi’an Numismatic Museum, 188 Xi da jie, Xi’an city, Shaanxi province, PR China, 710002

  • 陕西省西安市西大街188号(西安钱币博物馆收)
  • 邮编:710002
  • 联系人:赵晓明
  • 电话:029-87620652
  • 邮箱:1041394512@qq.com

61. Index to the first 60 posts

  1. The Kwangtung Note Redemption, July 1914 (5 Apr 2017)
  2. 19th-century East Asian numismatic books at the American Numismatic Society (12 Apr 2017)
  3. The world’s railways on coins (26 Apr 2017)
  4. Chinese openwork charms (28 Apr 2017)
  5. François Thierry’s new book on Chinese coins (30 Apr 2017)
  6. Supermarket of the Dead 冥間超市 (2 May 2017)
  7. Portraits on Chinese banknotes (1): Zaizhen (Tsai Chen) (5 May 2017)
  8. Auspicious symbols – ONS Study Day, London, 18 Nov 2017 (15 May 2017)
  9. Richard von Glahn – 4 lectures in Paris, May 2017 (19 May 2017)
  10. Lord Charles Beresford’s Chinese coins at the V&A (24 May 2017)
  11. Prof YANG Junchang, archaeol-metallurgist in London, 8 June (25 May 2017)
  12. Money in ancient China. People and their everyday life around money (5 Jun 2017)
  13. BUMA 9: The beginnings of the use of metal and alloys (Korea, Oct 2017)
  14. Charles Batten Hillier (1820-1856) (13 Jun 2017)
  15. Sheng Qi’s paintings of money (16 Jun 2017)
  16. Gold-coin leopard (19 Jun 2017)
  17. Evolution of silver – from sycee to silver dollar (7 Jul 2017)
  18. East Asian coins in North America (14 Jul 2017)
  19. Treasures in the Netherworld (lecture in Oxford, 19 July)  (17 Jul 2017)
  20. The anthropology of money in Southern California (24 Jul 2017)
  21. Taiwan’s tokens (31 Jul 2017)
  22. Collector: Justus Doolittle (1824-1880) (1 Aug 2017)
  23. Li Zijian and Chinese charms (29 Aug 2017)
  24. The Book of Swindles: Selections from a Late Ming Collection (1 Sep 2017)
  25. China Numismatics 2017.1 (144) – English summary (4 Sep 2017)
  26. Journal of East Asian Numismatics (JEAN) – issue 7, no. 25 (Aug 2017) (5 Sep 2017)
  27. Chinese coins on Tlingit armour (11 Sep 2017)
  28. Who’s Who in East Asian numismatics? (18 Sep 2017)
  29. Paintings of money by Dong Yuan and Lam Tung-pang (20 Sep 2017)
  30. Chinese coins from the scholar’s study (22 Sep 2017)
  31. Zhu Xihua, coin designer and engraver (26 Sep 2017)
  32. Academic Conference Proceedings of Gold and Silver Currency and Social Life (6 Oct 2017)
  33. Marco Polo Studies and Yuan dynasty money (13 Oct 2017)
  34. The Nicholas Rhodes Collection of Tibetan coins (31 Oct 2017)
  35. The account books of Derek Bryan, consular official in Peking (Beijing), in the 1930s (3 Nov 2017)
  36. Seaborne Trade in the East Indies and the Far East during XVIIth-XIXth Centuries (27 Nov 2017)
  37. Coins and charms in the “Jin shi suo”, by Feng Yunpeng and Feng Yunyuan (19 Jan 2018)
  38. The Invoice Museum (5 Feb 2018)
  39. Bibliography for Ancient Chinese Coin Casting Technology (13 Feb 2018)
  40. Thai porcelain tokens (“pee”) (14 Feb 2018)
  41. Chinese guides for identifying silver dollars and other coins, 19th century (16 Feb 2018)

  42. A Viking ship on a Chinese note (19 Apr 2018)
  43. Ma Rong – engraver of Mao and monkeys (26 Apr 2018)
  44. Japanese occupation money and the Battle of Balikpapan (8 May 2018)
  45. “Cultural Revolution style red packets” (15 May 2018)
  46. Is that a coin on Mao’s desk? (30 May 2018)
  47. Chinese Money Matters – so why does it have such a low profile? (5 Jun 2018)
  48. Red envelopes -the development and permanence of themes in Chinese popular imagery (21 Jun 2018)
  49. Chinese transportation tokens and tickets (27 Jun 2018)
  50. The use of silver ingots in Ming dynasty tax payment (4 Jul 2018)
  51. Waves of globalization – the XVIII World Economic History Congress (7 Aug 2018)
  52. Workshop: Eastern Zhou metal technologies (21 Sep 2018) (15 Aug 2018)

  53. The Millenium Medal, by Marian Fountain (17 Aug 2018)
  54. Dictionary of Modern Chinese Banking Organizations and People (5 Nov 2018)

  55. Paizi – Printed colophons and Chinese charms (7 Nov 2018)
  56. Two cabinets of coins from the Qianlong period in the State Hermitage Museum (2 Jan 2019)
  57. Palmer River Goldfield Chinese coin hoard: new evidence challenging its authenticity (16 Jan 2020)

  58. Book: Sino-Kharoshthi Coins (Horse Coins of Khotan) (17 Jan 2020)
  59. Frank Newman (1873-1937) and his Chinese coin collection (20 Jan 2020)
  60. Book: The History of Commercial Banks in Modern China (21 Jan 2020)


60. Book: The History of Commercial Banks in Modern China

Many thanks to Prof Dai Jianbing 戴建兵 for presenting this book to the Dept of Coins and Medals at the British Museum:


DAI Jianbing and CHEN Xiaorong (eds), Zhongguo jindai shangye yinhang shi / The History of Commercial Banks in Modern China (Beijing: Zhongguo jinrong chubanshe, 2019. ISBN 978-7-5220-0143-2


Table of Contents

绪论  / Introduction  (p.1)

汇丰银行 / Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (p. 15)

华俄道胜银行 / Russo-Chinese Bank (p. 73)

北洋保商银行 / Commercial Guarantee Bank of Chihli (p. 109)

中法实业银行 / Banque Industrielle de Chine (p. 145)

殖边银行 / Bank of Territorial Development (p. 193)

盐业银行 / Salt Bank (p. 227)

中孚银行 / Zhongfu Bank (p. 267)

中华汇业银行 / Exchange Bank of China (p. 295)

美丰银行 / American-Oriental Banking Corporation (p. 325)

中国农工银行 / Agricultural and Industrial Bank of China (p. 363)

大陆银行 / Continental Bank (p. 395)

中国实业银行 / National Industrial Bank of China (p. 429)

中华懋业银行 / Chinese American Bank of Commerce (p. 473)

边业银行 / Frontier Bank (p. 515)

中南银行 / China and South Sea Bank Ltd (p. 549)

蒙藏银行 / Great Northwestern Bank (p. 587)

中国垦业银行 / Land Bank of China (p. 611)

后记 / Afterword (p. 645)

59. Frank Newman (1873-1937) and his Chinese coin collection

Edward Francis Southan Newman (1873-1937) (鈕滿) was born in Hong Kong, and spent most of his life in China. Coole’s Bibliography (1967) lists Newman’s article “Ancient Chinese Coins” in the China Journal of Science and Arts, vol.1, no.4 (July 1923). Ian Gill, Frank Newman’s grandson, has published a couple of articles on his family history (May 2016  and Oct 2017), and in September 2017, WEI Chunyang (Victor Wei) published a piece on the Newman Family of Yantai, which drew attention to Newman’s coin collecting, in particular his acquisition of a very rare Guo bao jin kui zhi wan 国宝金匮直万 piece, now said to be in the National Museum of China collection. Many thanks for Ian Gill for his help in the preparation of this piece.


Caption: 魏春洋: 《近代烟台的纽曼家族》,煙臺晚報《煙臺街》,2017年9月19日 // WEI Chunyang: “The Newman Family of Yantai”, in Yantai Evening News, 19 Sept 2017.

The photographs in the article show (at the top, from left to right): (1) Mary Ann Newman with Annie – Frank’s mother and sister; (2) Edward Newman – Frank’s father; (3) Frank Newman; (4) Liu Mei Lan – Frank’s wife; (5) Guo bao jin kui zhi wan; (6) Edward Newman and others; (7) The Yantai Hotel

Edward Francis Southan Newman (1873-1937) was the eldest son of Edward and Mary Ann Newman. He was born in Hong Kong, and the family moved when he was a year old to Yantai, where his parents owned and ran the Yantai Hotel, on the beachfront. He was one of the first pupils at the prestigious Chefoo School, founded by the China Inland Mission.

After both parents had died, the family sold the hotel. Frank Newman joined Robert Hart’s Imperial Maritime Customs Service. A few years later, in 1898, he transferred to the Imperial Post Office, where he spent most of his career, working in different locations in China. In 1903 he married Liu Meilan (梅兰, anglicised as Marion Newman), daughter of a Chengdu businessman. He spent the rest of his career in more inland locations – the Upper Yangtse ports, Guizhou, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Hunan – away from the more international coastal cities. He remained with the postal service for 29 years, through the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911, receiving honours for his service – including: in 1917, the Fifth Class of the Order of the Excellent Crop [Order of the Golden Grain 宝光嘉禾勋章], and, in 1919, the Fourth Class (see other recipients of this order) – and finally resigned in 1927.

Reports and correspondence by Newman provide very vivid descriptions. For example, while Newman was acting postal commissioner in Changsha during the warlord years, he wrote, on 5 April 1918:

The demand for money orders since the arrival of the northern troops at Changsha has become very great. During the last three days, there has been remitted at the head office alone over twenty thousand dollars, and still they come. The office is simply packed from early morning to after three o’clock with soldiers demanding money orders, fighting and struggling as to who should be served first. It became so bad that I had to apply to the governor for a guard to keep order. (Gill quotes Lane Harris: “The warlord soldiers were using the Post Office to remit their plunder to their families in the north”)

Meanwhile, Newman’s family – his wife and children – were based in Shanghai for safety and for the children’s education. There were three children: a biological daughter, Jessie, and two adopted daughters Dorothy and Marylou (Louise Mary Gill, MBE – Ian Gill’s mother). Newman was also a collector of antiquities, including coins, and it seems the collection was also kept in Shanghai. Gill’s mother recalled many of the pieces he collected: bowls and figurines from the Tang, Song and Ming dynasties; a pair of Ming vases; and a wan min san, an honorific umbrella with a round, flat top and dozens of fluttering red silk strips dangling from its edges, given to him for his help in alleviating a famine. [1]

After his retirement in 1927, Newman deserted his family in Shanghai, and set sail for Canada (where his brother George was living), describing himself as self-employed, and taking with him US$11,000 (silver dollars) in cash, and his “wife” Nina Kovaleva and her daughter Kira. They travelled via Seattle to Vancouver, but very soon returned to Shanghai, charged with falsifying government documents (his “wife”) and desertion (his wife and children), and subsequently went to live in Qingdao.

Newman’s collection of antiques was sold to cover the costs (the plaintiff’s debts and monthly alimony payments), and Gill’s mother remembered a merchant coming to the house in Yuyuan Road, Shanghai, in 1932 and buying up most of Newman’s collection, including a cabinet of coins. It is not known what happened to the collection after that.

Wei Chunyang writes that Newman acquired a Guo bao jin kui zhi wan 国宝金匮直万, a very rare piece issued during Wang Mang’s Xin dynasty, one of two unearthed by farmers in the Xi’an area in 1901. He writes that Newman was working in Xi’an at the time, and acquired one of them, that he showed his coin collection to ZHANG Jiongbo 張絅伯 (1885-1969), that Zhang bought the piece, and sold it on to CHEN Rentao 陈仁涛 (1906-1968), who took it with him to Hong Kong in 1946. In the early 1950s Chen sold his collection to the Chinese government, and it is now part of the numismatic collection in the National Museum of China.

[1] Wan min san 万民伞 (“10,000 people parasol”) were presented to virtuous officials, including officers of the Chinese Labour Corps – see this photo in the Imperial War Museum [IWM (Q 8815)]

Many thanks to Bryan Sitch at the Manchester Museum, which has the wan min san that was presented to Lieutenant Thomas Walsh (1877-1970) who served as an Officer with the 119th Company Chinese Labour Corps in France in September 1917  [Manchester Museum’s Living Cultures collection (0.2809)]. For more photographs, search search online images for wan min san / wanminsan / 万民伞 / 萬民傘


UPDATE (20 January 2020)

Many thanks to Ian Gill, who has kindly sent links to further articles relating to Newman:

58. Book: Sino-Kharoshthi Coins (Horse Coins of Khotan)

Newly received book – many thanks to Professor DAI Jianbing 戴建兵, at Hebei Normal University.


周倜著:《汉佉而体钱(和田马钱)新探》,河北人民出版社,2018年。(钱币学丛书,丛书主编:戴建兵)。ISBN: 978-7-202-13321-7

ZHOU Ti, A new look at Sino-Kharoshthi coins  (Horse coins of Khotan), (Shijiazhuang: Hebei renmin chubanshe, 2018) [in the Numismatics series, series editor Dai Jianbing]. ISBN 978-7-202-13321-7. 173 pp.

ZHOU Ti 周倜 is a member of the Xinjiang Numismatic Society 新疆钱币学会, but better known for his publications on Chinese calligraphy.

Foreword by Huang Zhigang 黄志刚, Director of the Xinjiang Numismatic Museum 新疆钱币博物馆, and Secretary of the Xinjiang Numismatic Society

Afterword by ZHANG Xin 张欣, Research student at the Institute of History and Literature, Hebei Normal University

Series editor DAI Jianbing 戴建兵 is Professor of Economic History at Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang

Table of Contents

  1. The inscriptions on Sino-Kharoshthi coins
  2. The historical figures named on Sino-Kharoshthi coins
  3. The origins of Sino-Kharoshthi coins (in Shache)
  4. The development of Sino-Kharoshthi coins in Yutian
  5. The differences between 5-grain (wuzhu) and 6-grain (liuzhu) Sino-Kharoshthi coins
  6. The Sino-Kharoshthi coins of Qiuci (horse coins with inscription “weight 5 zhu”)
  7. The large coins of the kings of Khotan which do not have a record of weight
  8. The history and background of overstrikes on horse coins (Sino-Kharoshthi coins)
  9. On the background to horse coins  and other coins in the Western Regions in the Han dynasty
  10. On the coin with inscription “Ci quan nei hua”

Illustrations of Sino-Kharoshthi coins (b/w photos of 147 coins from Zhou Ti’s collection)

Afterword by ZHANG Xin

*  Find this book on Worldcat


57. Palmer River Goldfield Chinese coin hoard: new evidence challenging its authenticity

Ron Zhu and Neville Ritchie, “Palmer River Goldfield Chinese Coin Hoard: New Evidence Challenging its Authenticity”, Chinese Southern Diaspora Studies, vol. 8 (2019), pp. 190-224.

祝仲蓉 和 內維爾·里奇: 《帕爾默河金礦區發現的中國古銅錢窖藏:新的證據質疑其真實性》,《南方華裔研究雜志》第八卷, 2019。

Abstract: This paper investigates the widely publicised claim by Keith Courtenay in the late 1970s that he had found a large hoard of 32,000 Chinese ‘cash’ (Chinese coins with a square hole in the middle) in the Palmer River Goldfield in far north Queensland, Australia. The discovery of the hoard was a momentous event at the time, but almost immediately some researchers raised reservations about its authenticity because of inconsistencies in Courtenay’s accounts of the circumstances that led to its discovery and its immense size in terms of the number of the coins, far greater than any other find of Chinese coins in any overseas Chinese context. Our research reviews all the evidence relating to the discovery and publicity about the hoard at the time, the people involved, and the subsequent sale and gifting of large portions of it. We conclude that while the coins are genuine Chinese cash, there is little likelihood, partly based on the young age of some of the coins, that they were found in the Palmer Goldfield as alleged. We outline a more likely scenario about how they were acquired along with evidence to support our conclusions. At the time, most people had no reason to think the hoard was not genuine and the story of its discovery and sale were uncritically integrated into local history and remain so to this day.

Read the whole article here

Here’s a video of the Palmer River Goldfields & Maytown the Gold Mining Ghost Town (2018), by LowRangeNick on Youtube.